Parnassius hardwickii (Grey, 1831)

Mohan Merg, Kashmir; 7/27/32; 10,500 feet elevation.  ssp. hardwickii female Lahul, 3200m India ssp. hardwickii
Zoji La, Kasjhmir region 3000 meters ssp asanoi male N India ssp. or form albicans female -
appears similar to light form of nominate ssp

        Hardwickii is not threatened and can be locally abundant in the Southern faces of the Himalayas to which it is confined (India, Pakistan, Nepan, Bhutan, and SW China). It flies from 2500 meters to near 5000 meters, over grassy meadows to rocky scrubland at the higher elevations. Great seasonal variability and sexual dimorphism. The five or so described subspecies have all been brought into question as possibly representing only seasonal and altitudinal forms.